Steam turbines have to date been the most traditional way to covert heat into electricity. Steam turbines are able to convert between 35-60% of the heat into electricity. However, scientists have kept investigating alternative ways to turn heat into electricity. Thermophotovoltaic cells (TPV) were initially promising, but only ever achieved efficiency rates of 20-32%. By increasing both the temperature of the heat emitter & the absorption properties of the TVC (visible, ultraviolet & infrared) engineers at MIT have achieved efficiency rates of 40%, with a clear idea of how to reach 50%.
Concentrated solar power (CSP) traditionally uses large arrays of mirrors to direct sunlight onto a tall central receiver tower, which then creates heat that is stored in various liquids for use when the sun is not shining to generate electricity. CSP offers storage that traditional solar (PV) systems do not, however they have been historically big and expensive. An Australian company has developed a smaller, cheaper CSP and PV combination, with a 70% efficiency rate (on par with pumped hydro). The pilot project is currently operating in Carwarp, Victoria, Australia. https://reneweconomy.com.au/the-australian-solar-tech-that-may-have-found-a-low-cost-solution-to-deep-storage/