As cities experience the effects of climate change, new designs are emerging to mitigate risks.
“Sponge cities” can absorb, filter and store surface water, whilst also sanitising it.
It's a sustainable water management solution for urban development, so the built environment can adapt to droughts and floods.
Instead of impermeable asphalt roads and concrete playgrounds - that act as heat islands - sponge cities incorporate natural and green infrastructure that permits water to filter underground supported by surface flood plains built of earth, gravel, sand and grass.
It's a protective above and below ground solution harnessing resources based on nature.